China’s copyright system has attracted intensive attention throughout the world. It is difficult for Westerners to understand the reason for the historically sluggish evolution of China’s copyright legislation and the current strong desire to reform the copyright system. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, China’s strong desire to join the World Trade Organization (WTO) resulted in a comprehensive amendment of the copyright law. Now China’s great ambition to become a leading country in the cultural and information industries is pushing China to implement legislation reform to respond to information technology developments, rampant piracy, and the public’s need for access to information. This article de- scribes China’s reforms of copyright legislation, examines its motivations, and discusses challenges in the future.